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Sulfur transfer and activation by ubiquitin-like modifier system Uba4•Urm1 link protein urmylation and tRNA thiolation in yeast
Urm1 is a unique dual-function member of the ubiquitin protein family and conserved from yeast to man. It acts both as a protein modifier in ubiquitin-like urmylation and as a sulfur donor for tRNA thiolation, which in concert with the Elongator pathway forms 5-methoxy-carbonyl-methyl-2-thio (mcm5s2) modified wobble uridines (U34) in anticodons. Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model to study a relationship between these two functions, we examined whether cultivation temperature and sulfur supply ...
No Evidence for Ionotropic Pheromone Transduction in the Hawkmoth Manduca sexta
Insect odorant receptors (ORs) are 7-transmembrane receptors with inverse membrane topology. They associate with the conserved ion channel Orco. As chaperon, Orco maintains ORs in cilia and, as pacemaker channel, Orco controls spontaneous activity in olfactory receptor neurons. Odorant binding to ORs opens OR-Orco receptor ion channel complexes in heterologous expression systems. It is unknown, whether this also occurs in vivo. As an alternative to this ionotropic transduction, experimental evidence is accumulating ...
tRNA anticodon loop modifications ensure protein homeostasis and cell morphogenesis in yeast
Using budding yeast, we investigated a negative interaction network among genes for tRNA modifications previously implicated in anticodon-codon interaction: 5-methoxy-carbonyl-methyl-2-thio-uridine (mcm5s2U34: ELP3, URM1), pseudouridine (Ψ38/39: DEG1) and cyclic N6-threonyl-carbamoyl-adenosine (ct6A37: TCD1). In line with functional cross talk between these modifications, we find that combined removal of either ct6A37 or Ψ38/39 and mcm5U34 or s2U34 results in morphologically altered cells with synthetic growth defects. ...
High-precision force sensing using a single trapped ion
We introduce quantum sensing schemes for measuring very weak forces with a single trapped ion. They use the spin-motional coupling induced by the laser-ion interaction to transfer the relevant force information to the spin-degree of freedom. Therefore, the force estimation is carried out simply by observing the Ramsey-type oscillations of the ion spin states. Three quantum probes are considered, which are represented by systems obeying the Jaynes-Cummings, quantum Rabi (in 1D) and Jahn-Teller (in 2D) models. By using ...
Microsatellites from Fosterella christophii (Bromeliaceae) by de novo transcriptome sequencing on the Pacific Biosciences RS platform
• Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed in Fosterella christophii (Bromeliaceae) to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure within the F. micrantha group, comprising F. christophii, F. micrantha, and F. villosula. • Methods and Results: Full-length cDNAs were isolated from F. christophii and sequenced on a Pacific Biosciences RS platform. A total of 1590 high-quality consensus isoforms were assembled into 971 unigenes containing 421 perfect microsatellites. Thirty primer ...