Now showing items 181-190 of 226
Changes of traditional farming systems and their effects on land degradation and socio-economic conditions in the Inle Lake region, Myanmar
At many locations in Myanmar, ongoing changes in land use have negative environmental impacts and threaten natural ecosystems at local, regional and national scales. In particular, the watershed area of Inle Lake in eastern Myanmar is strongly affected by the environmental effects of deforestation and soil erosion caused by agricultural intensification and expansion of agricultural land, which are exacerbated by the increasing population pressure and the growing number of tourists. This thesis, therefore, focuses on ...
Settlement history of a mountain oasis in Northern Oman
To unravel the settlement history of oases in northern Oman, data on topography, the agricultural setting, water and soil parameters and archaeological findings were collected in the Wadi Bani Awf with its head oasis Balad Seet. Data collection lasted from April 2000 to April 2003 and was based on the establishment of a 3D-georeferenced map of the oasis comprising all its major infrastructural and agronomic features. At today's Balad Seet, a total of 8.8 ha are planted to 2,800 date palms and 4.6 ha are divided into ...
Organic inputs and farmers' management strategies in millet fields of western Niger
Research on soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa was criticized lately for largely ignoring farmers’ management strategies and the underlying principles. To fill this gap of knowledge, detailed interviews were conducted with 108 farm households about their rationale in managing the soil fertility of 307 individual fields in the agro-pastoral village territory of Chikal in western Niger. To amplify the farmers’ information on manuring and corralling practices, repeated measurements of applied amounts of ...
Agricultural, architectural and archaeological evidence for the role and ecological adaptation of a scattered mountain oasis in Oman
The recent discovery of the monumental 5000 years old tower tombs on top of the up to 1850 m high Shir plateau has raised numerous questions about the economic and infrastructural basis of the agro-pastoral-piscicultural society which likely has constructed them. The scattered oasis settlement of Maqta, situated just below the towers in a rugged desert environment has therefore been studied from 2001 to 2003 to understand its prehistoric and present role along the ancient trade route which connected the inner-Omani ...
Drainage, salt leaching and physico-chemical properties of irrigated man-made terrace soils in a mountain oasis of northern Oman
Little is known about the sustainability of irrigated oasis agriculture in northern Oman. The objective of this study therefore was to examine which factors allowed agricultural productivity to be apparently maintained during the two millenia of a mountain oasis’ existence. Soil moisture and physico-chemical properties were measured in a typical flood-irrigated field sown to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Particle size, organic (C_org) and inorganic carbon content, pH and electrical conductivity (EC)of the soil profile ...
Legume rotation effects on early growth and rhizosphere microbiology of sorghum in West African soils
Cereal yield increases in legume rotations on west African soils were the subject of much recent research aiming at the development of more productive cropping systems for the mainly subsistence-oriented agriculture in this region. However, little has been done to elucidate the possible contribution of soil microbiological factors to these rotation effects. Therefore a pot trial was conducted using legume rotation and continuous cereal soils each from one site in Burkina Faso and two sites in Togo where cropping ...
Field measurements of the CO2 evolution rate under different crops during an irrigation cycle in a mountain oasis of Oman
For millennia oasis agriculture has been the backbone of rural livelihood in the desertic Sultanate of Oman. However, little is known about the functioning of these oasis systems, in particular with respect to the C turnover. The objective was to determine the effects of crop, i.e. alfalfa, wheat and bare fallow on the CO2 evolution rate during an irrigation cycle in relation to changes in soil water content and soil temperature. The gravimetric soil water content decreased from initially 24% to approximately 16% ...
Plant genetic diversity, irrigation and nutrient cycling in traditional mountain oases of northern Oman
(Li, C. J. (u.a.) (Hrsg.), 2005)
Little is known about plant biodiversity, irrigation management and nutrient fluxes as criteria to assess the sustainability of traditional irrigation agriculture in eastern Arabia. Therefore interdisciplinary studies were conducted over 4 yrs on flood-irrigated fields dominated by wheat (Triticum spp.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in two mountain oases of northern Oman. In both oases wheat landraces consisted of varietal mixtures comprising T. aestivum and T. durum of which ...
Emmer (Triticum dicoccon Schrank) in Oman
Emmer (Triticum dicoccon ) was collected recently in northern Oman. The material was analyzed morphologically and phenologically. It belongs to the Asiatic emmers (subsp. asiaticum) and not to the Ethiopian ones (subsp. abyssinicum), distributed in Ethiopia and Yemen, as originally expected. The determination of the material resulted in var. haussknechtianum and var. aeruginosum.
Einfluss der Flächenwahl, Anbaudichte und Landschaftsstruktur auf den Befallsstatus und die Ausbreitung der Möhrenfliege Psila rosae F. (Diptera: Psilidae) im ökologischen Möhrenanbau
Durch die vermehrte Nachfrage von Biomöhren im Lebensmitteleinzelhandel ist die Anbaufläche ökologisch erzeugter Möhren in den letzten zehn Jahren deutlich angestiegen. Der Anbau konzentriert sich auf bestimmte Regionen und erfolgte damit zunehmend auf großen Schlägen in enger räumlicher und zeitlicher Abfolge. Mit der steigenden Wirtspflanzenpräsenz steigt auch der Befallsdruck durch die Möhrenfliege. Während der Schädling im konventionellen Anbau mit Insektiziden kontrolliert wird, stehen dem Ökologischen Landbau ...