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The Degree of Word-Expansion of Lexicalized RRWW-Automata
(A New Measure for The Degree of Nondeterminism of (Context-Free) Languages)
Restarting automata can be seen as analytical variants of classical automata as well as of regulated rewriting systems. We study a measure for the degree of nondeterminism of (context-free) languages in terms of deterministic restarting automata that are (strongly) lexicalized. This measure is based on the number of auxiliary symbols (categories) used for recognizing a language as the projection of its characteristic language onto its input alphabet. This type of recognition is typical for analysis by reduction, a method used in linguistics for the creation and verification of formal descriptions of natural languages. Our main results establish a hierarchy of classes of context-free languages and two hierarchies of classes of non-context-free languages that are based on the expansion factor of a language.