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Pathogens occuring in the winter pea-maize-winter wheat rotation, their host specificity and the potential of compost in suppressing foot and root disease of peas
The overall aim of the work presented was to evaluate soil health management with a specific focus on soil borne diseases of peas. For that purpose field experiments were carried out from 2009 until 2013 to assess crop performance and pathogen occurrence in the rotation winter pea-maize-winter wheat and if the application of composts can improve system performance. The winter peas were left untreated or inoculated with Phoma medicaginis, in the presence or absence of yard waste compost at rate of 5 t dry matter ha-1. ...
Etiology of Maize Root rot in Oman: Causal agents and effects of a compost based organic growing system
Summary: In Oman, the main cereal crop Maize is facing serious problems due to high salinity, alkaline soils with low organic matter, high temperatures, and root rot diseases. Production peaked at 40,000 t in 2011 but dropped to less than 15,000 t in 2014. A survey on maize root rot in eight maize growing governorates in Oman yielded nine fungal and oomycetes species of which Pythium arrhenomanes and Fusarium fujikuroi were first reports on maize in Oman. Both are able to attack multiple hosts. Under controlled ...
Studies on the diversity of the main necrotrophic pathogens on wheat and barley Pyrenophora tritici-repentis and Cochliobolus sativus
Leaf blights such as tan spot of wheat (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis) and spot blotch of barley (Cochliobolus sativus) are among the main constraints in achieving high and stable yields and are the main concerns among the several intrinsic drawbacks of narrow cropping sequencesas both are residue borne. The development of useful and durable resistance against prevalent races requires detailed information on the virulence diversity of the pathogen and the type of resistances available in the host. Thus, the focus of ...
Spezifität der quantitativen Resistenz von Blättern und Früchten der Tomate (Lycopersicon ssp. L.) gegenüber Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary.
Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, einen Beitrag zur Resistenzforschung bei Tomaten gegenüber P. infestans zu leisten, um erste Grundlagen für eine mögliche Züchtungsstrategie auf Basis unterschiedlicher quantitativer Resistenzen zu erarbeiten. Hierzu wurde untersucht, inwieweit unterschiedliche qualitative und quantitative Resistenzen bei Tomatenblättern und -früchten vorliegen, und ob hierfür verantwortliche Mechanismen identifiziert werden können. Zudem wurde untersucht, ob isolatspezifische quantitative ...
Evaluation of Pathological Risks Associated with Use of Leguminous Cover crop and Living mulch species
In the past 10 to 15 years, there has been a tendency in Europe to switch from cereal based cropping systems, with winter and summer fallow, to cropping systems which combine greater crop diversity with maximum soil cover. Increasing the opportunities of including legumes into crop rotations to be grown as cover crops, intercropped or under-sown with cereals can provide multiple beneficial services to agro-ecosystems. A major concern is however, that many of the leguminous species of interest share important soil-borne ...
The Suppressive Nature of Compost against Pythium spp: evaluation of compost-based applications in two host pathogen systems using bioassays and molecular fingerprinting
The suppressive effect of composts on soil-borne plant pathogens has been widely reported in the scientific literature. However, the role of the compost microbiome, in this respect, is still not well understood. The general goal of this research was the molecular-biological characterisation of the microbiomes of two compost types within the host-pathogen system Pythium ultimum and cucumber, thereby contributing to understanding the role of the microbial structure of the chosen composts in this specific system. An ...
Agrobiodiversity through evolutionary plant breeding – System specific adaptation of agronomic and morphological traits and effective populations size in composite cross populations of winter wheat
Der Schwerpunkt der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Beschäftigung mit Züchtungsmethoden, die eine Erhöhung der Agrobiodiversität mit sich bringen, außerdem werden die Auswirkungen diversifizierter Anbausysteme betrachtet.