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Factors affecting peasants’ empowerment in West Halmahera District – a case study from Indonesia
Agricultural development has not yet created empowered farmers in Indonesia. Most farmers living in eastern Indonesia are peasants with low access to development resources. This condition causes most of the peasants to be classified as poor citizens. This research was meant to formulate improvement strategies for empowerment of the peasants. The data were collected between March – May 2012 using the following methods: observation, interview and focus group discussion. The data was analysed using descriptive statistic and structural equation modelling (SEM) and showed that: (1) the empowerment of peasants was within the lowest category for all variables, namely: the peasant characteristics, the role of the agents for development, program quality, the learning process and access to environmental support, (2) the determining factors affecting the empowerment of the peasants were: program implementation quality, the role of the agents of development, environmental access and support, the peasant characteristics, and the appropriateness of the learning process and (3) the strategy to improve empowerment of the peasants could be through corrective efforts towards program implementation quality, the role of facilitators, environmental access and support while considering the peasant characteristics and the learning process of the peasants.