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Untergangsphantasien/-diskurse: Goll, Céline, Gracq, Houellebecq
Aktuelle Themen wie das des lateinischen Reichs laden dazu ein, sie nach Maßgabe sachlicher, historisch-politischer Voraussetzungen zu diskutieren. Der vorliegende Beitrag versucht unter dem Stichwort Untergangsphantasien nichtsdestoweniger einen Schritt zurückzutreten und das diskursive, narrative Feld zu klären, in dem solche Diskussionen beheimatet sind.
Introducing the Logarithmic finite element method: a geometrically exact planar Bernoulli beam element
We propose a novel finite element formulation that significantly reduces the number of degrees of freedom necessary to obtain reasonably accurate approximations of the low-frequency component of the deformation in boundary-value problems. In contrast to the standard Ritz–Galerkin approach, the shape functions are defined on a Lie algebra—the logarithmic space—of the deformation function. We construct a deformation function based on an interpolation of transformations at the nodes of the finite element. In the case ...
Microscale-Motivated Continuum Damage Simulations of Brittle Ceramics under Thermomechanical Loading
Two approaches towards modeling damage in a brittle material caused by thermomechanical loading are presented. Bothrelyonmicrocrack growth, in the first case in ahomogeneousmatrix, in the second one at grain boundaries.Two-scale simulations e.g. of thermal shocks applied to single-phase or layered structures are performed in connection with the finite element method. Damage and crack patterns are predicted just as quantities like residual strength or critical temperature jumps.
Emerging Development Pathways of Urban Livestock Production in Rapidly Growing West Africa Cities
In this study, we try to capture the degree of specialization or integration, and of intensification or extensification, of (peri-) urban livestock production, along with the factors that influence such decisions and their impact on natural resource uses. A total of 181 and 187 structured questionnaires were completed in livestock-keeping households in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) and Tamale (Ghana). Categorical principal component and two-step cluster analysis were used to identify homogenous groups of livestock-keeping ...
Applying Least Absolute Shrinkage Selection Operator and Akaike Information Criterion Analysis to Find the Best Multiple Linear Regression Models between Climate Indices and Components of Cow’s Milk
This study focuses on multiple linear regression models relating six climate indices (temperature humidity THI, environmental stress ESI, equivalent temperature index ETI, heat load HLI, modified HLI (HLI new), and respiratory rate predictor RRP) with three main components of cow’s milk (yield, fat, and protein) for cows in Iran. The least absolute shrinkage selection operator (LASSO) and the Akaike information criterion (AIC) techniques are applied to select the best model for milk predictands with the smallest ...
Total Site Utility Systems Optimisation for Milk Powder Production
This study applies the Total Site Heat Integration method, in conjunction with a detailed process and utility model, to investigate three methods to increase the energy efficiency of the utility supply system for milk powder production. Sequentially explored opportunities are: (1) increasing boiler efficiency through condensing economisers, (2) waste heat recovery from the chiller unit, and (3) Combined Heat and Power (CHP) for electricity production. The basis for the analysis is the anticipated future milk powder ...
Energy Efficiency Measures for Batch Retort Sterilization in the Food Processing Industry
The purpose of this study is to highlight the energy saving potentials of a batch retort sterilization process operated by steam and to develop concepts for improving its energy efficiency. By using the methodical approach of the Onion Diagram and the recovery of low grade heat sources, four comprehensive improved energy efficiency concepts have been developed. Two concepts increase the initial product temperature resulting in lower transient steam consumption rates and a decreased energy demand. The other two options ...
Mixed-mode crack tip loading and crack deflection in 1D quasicrystals
Quasicrystals (QC) are a new class of materials besides crystals and amorphous solids and have aroused much attention of researchers since they were discovered. This paper presents a generalized fracture theory including the J-integral and crack closure integrals, relations between J1, J2 and the stress intensity factors as well as the implementation of the near-tip stress and displacement solutions of 1D QC. Different crack deflection criteria, i.e. the J-integral and maximum circumferential stress criteria, are ...
Urban Agriculture Oriented towards Self-Supply, Social and Commercial Purpose: A Typology
Urban agriculture, a dynamic multifunctional phenomenon, affects the spatial diversification of urban land use, its valorization and its governance. Literature acknowledges its contribution to the development of sustainable cities. The dimension and extent of this contribution depends significantly on the particular form and function of urban agriculture. However, the complexity of interests and dimensions is insufficiently covered by theory. This paper proposes a typology for urban agriculture, supporting both theory ...
Constitutive modeling of nonlinear reversible and irreversible ferromagnetic behaviors and application to multiferroic composites
The coupling of magnetic and mechanical fields due to the constitutive behavior of a material is commonly denoted as magnetostrictive effect. The latter is only observed with large coupling coefficients in ferromagnetic materials, where coupling is caused by the rotation of the domains as a result of magnetic (Joule effect) or mechanical (Villari effect) loads. However, only a few elements (e.g. Fe, Ni, Co, and Mn) and their compositions exhibit such a behavior. In this article, the constitutive modeling of nonlinear ...