Now showing items 31-40 of 623
General Belief in a Just World Is Positively Associated with Dishonest Behavior
According to the just-world theory, people need to – or rather want to – believe that they live in a just world where they will receive what they earn and consequently earn what they receive. In the present work, we examined the influence of people’s general and personal beliefs in a just world (BJW) on their (dis)honest behavior. Given that general BJW was found to be linked to antisocial tendencies, we expected stronger general BJW to be linked to more dishonesty. Given that personal BJW was found to be correlated ...
Girls in detail, boys in shape: Gender differences when drawing cubes in depth
The current study tested gender differences in the developmental transition from drawing cubes in two‐ versus three dimensions (3D), and investigated the underlying spatial abilities. Six‐ to nine‐year‐old children (N = 97) drew two occluding model cubes and solved several other spatial tasks. Girls more often unfolded the various sides of the cubes into a layout, also called diagrammatic cube drawing (object design detail). In girls, the best predictor for drawing the cubes was Mental Rotation Test (MRT) accuracy. ...
The ‘forma specialis’ issue in Fusarium: A case study in Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi
The Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) has been studied intensively but its association with legumes, particularly under European agro-climatic conditions, is still poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated phylogenetic relationships and aggressiveness of 79 isolates of the FSSC collected from pea, subterranean clover, white clover and winter vetch grown under diverse agro-climatic and soil conditions within Temperate and Mediterranean Europe. The isolates were characterized by sequencing tef1 and ...
Role of Pseudouridine Formation by Deg1 for Functionality of Two Glutamine Isoacceptor tRNAs
Loss of Deg1/Pus3 and concomitant elimination of pseudouridine in tRNA at positions 38 and 39 (ψ38/39) was shown to specifically impair the function of tRNAGlnUUG under conditions of temperature-induced down-regulation of wobble uridine thiolation in budding yeast and is linked to intellectual disability in humans. To further characterize the differential importance of the frequent ψ38/39 modification for tRNAs in yeast, we analyzed the in vivo function of non-sense suppressor tRNAs SUP4 and sup70-65 in the absence ...
Untergangsphantasien/-diskurse: Goll, Céline, Gracq, Houellebecq
Aktuelle Themen wie das des lateinischen Reichs laden dazu ein, sie nach Maßgabe sachlicher, historisch-politischer Voraussetzungen zu diskutieren. Der vorliegende Beitrag versucht unter dem Stichwort Untergangsphantasien nichtsdestoweniger einen Schritt zurückzutreten und das diskursive, narrative Feld zu klären, in dem solche Diskussionen beheimatet sind.
Reading a short story changes children’s sustainable behavior in a resource dilemma
Fostering sustainable behavior in children and adolescents should be a central aim of today’s education. Even though the interplay of factors affecting sustainable behavior is complex, simple interventions can be effective too. In the current study, 10-year-olds (N = 132) were read a short story about two foresters who collectively used a forest to gain timber, facing a resource dilemma that involved striving for maximizing their individual profit while sustaining the forest. In the story, the foresters solved the ...
Is your Perception of "Luxury" Similar to Mine? A Concept Made of Absolute and Relative Features
Luxury is a relative feature of goods and services. Despite the many empirical studies that have been conducted, marketing scholars have not agreed on a common definition or interpretation of the term "luxury" so far. This deficit causes improper interpretations and, thus, evokes a kind of growing conceptual confusion. Additionally, the increasing interest in luxury in recent years had contributed unintentionally to the ambiguity of the term. Advertising agencies consciously or unconsciously aim to take advantage of ...
Shape But Not Color Facilitates Two-Year-Olds’ Search Performance in a Spatial Rotation Task
Children younger than 3 years of age often fail to track hidden objects that are rotated together with identical hiding containers, which might be due to relatively complex paradigms. We examined whether 2-year-olds (N = 28) are already able to track spatial rotations (i.e., by 90° and 180°) if the task is facilitated by increasing the visual discriminability of the hiding containers by means of different shapes and different colors. Children performed above chance level in all conditions except for the condition in ...
Sensor Concept Based on Piezoelectric PVDF Films for the Structural Health Monitoring of Fatigue Crack Growth
A new sensor concept for monitoring fatigue crack growth in technical structures is presented. It allows the in-situ determination of the position of the crack tip as well as the fracture mechanical quantities. The required data are obtained from a piezoelectric polymer film, which is attached to the surface of the monitored structure. The stress intensity factors and the crack tip position are calculated from electrical potentials obtained from a sensor array by solving the non-linear inverse problem.
Crack path predictions and experiments in plane structures considering anisotropic properties and material interfaces
In many engineering applications special requirements are directed to a material's fracture behavior and the prediction of crack paths. Especially if the material exhibits anisotropic elastic properties or fracture toughnesses, e.g. in textured or composite materials, the simulation of crack paths is challenging. Here, the application of path independent interaction integrals (I-integrals), J-, L- and M-integrals is beneficial for an accurate crack tip loading analysis. Numerical tools for the calculation of loading ...