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dc.description.sponsorshipGefördert im Rahmen des Projekts DEALger
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International*
dc.subjectexperimental designeng
dc.subjectfield scaleeng
dc.subjectnaturally-occurring variabilityeng
dc.subjectrandom intercept modeleng
dc.subjectsampling designeng
dc.titleImportance of sources of variability, scales and experimental design: A case study about the effects of biochar and slurry application on soil properties in agricultural silty loam soilseng
dcterms.abstractIn designed experiments, different sources of variability and an adequate scale of measurement need to be considered, but not all approaches in common usage are equally valid. In order to elucidate the importance of sources of variability and choice of scale, we conducted an experiment where the effects of biochar and slurry applications on soil properties related to soil fertility were studied for different designs: (a) for a field-scale sampling design with either a model soil (without natural variability) as an internal control or with composited soils, (b) for a design with a focus on amendment variabilities, and (c) for three individual field-scale designs with true field replication and a combined analysis representative of the population of loess-derived soils. Three silty loam sites in Germany were sampled and the soil macroaggregates were crushed. For each design, six treatments (0, 0.15 and 0.30 g slurry-N kg−1 with and without 30 g biochar kg−1) were applied before incubating the units under constant soil moisture conditions for 78 days. CO2 fluxes were monitored and soils were analysed for macroaggregate yields and associated organic carbon (C). Mixed-effects models were used to describe the effects. For all soil properties, results for the loess sites differed with respect to significant contributions of fixed effects for at least one site, suggesting the need for a general inclusion of different sites. Analysis using a multilevel model allowed generalizations for loess soils to be made and showed that site:slurry:biochar and site:slurry interactions were not negligible for macroaggregate yields. The use of a model soil as an internal control enabled observation of variabilities other than those related to soils or amendments. Experiments incorporating natural variability in soils or amendments resulted in partially different outcomes, indicating the need to include all important sources of variability. Highlights - Effects of biochar and slurry applications were studied for different designs and mixed-effects models were used to describe the effects. - Including an internal control allowed observation of, e.g., methodological and analytical variabilities. - The results suggested the need for a general inclusion of different sites. - Analysis using a multilevel model allowed generalizations for loess soils. - The results indicated the need to include all important sources of variability.eng
dcterms.accessRightsopen access
dcterms.creatorLudwig, Bernard
dcterms.creatorSong, Xiaona
dcterms.creatorGunina, Anna
dcterms.creatorGreenberg, Isabel
dcterms.creatorDippold, Michaela Anna
dcterms.creatorPiepho, Hans-Peter
dc.subject.swdExperimentelle Versuchsforschungger
dcterms.source.issueIssue 5
dcterms.source.journalEuropean Journal of Soil Science (EJSS)eng
dcterms.source.volumeVolume 72

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Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International