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Studies on arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) in the Alentejo (Portugal) using pea mutants resistant to AM fungi as a control tool for field conditions
The utilization and management of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) symbiosis may improve production and sustainability of the cropping system. For this purpose, native AM fungi (AMF) were sought and tested for their efficiency to increase plant growth by enhanced P uptake and by alleviation of drought stress. Pot experiments with safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and pea (Pisum sativum) in five soils (mostly sandy loamy Luvisols) and field experiments with peas were carried out during three years at four different sites. ...
Mikrobielle Nutzung von Ernteresten in Bodensäulen und Litterbags
Die vorliegende Arbeit untersuchte die Einflüsse der Bodenart und Einarbeitungstiefe von Streu auf die mikrobielle Nutzung und ihren Abbau. Anhand einer Kohlenstoffsequestrierung wurde die Verlagerung streubürtigen Kohlenstoffes in die Fraktionen CO2-C, SOC, extrahierbaren Kohlenstoff, Cmik und POM-C betrachtet. Aufgrund der Analyse der δ13C-CO2 Werte der Bodenrespiration, im Rahmen der Sequestrierung des streubürtigen Kohlenstoffes, war der Anteil der streubürtigen Bodenrespiration und somit die gesamte, zu erwartende ...
Salinity-induced changes in the microbial use of sugarcane filter cake added to soil
Five laboratory incubation experiments were carried out to assess the salinity-induced changes in the microbial use of sugarcane filter cake added to soil. The first laboratory experiment was carried out to prove the hypothesis that the lower content of fungal biomass in a saline soil reduces the decomposition of a complex organic substrate in comparison to a non-saline soil under acidic conditions. Three different rates (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0%) of sugarcane filter cake were added to both soils and incubated for 63 days ...
Drainage, salt leaching and physico-chemical properties of irrigated man-made terrace soils in a mountain oasis of northern Oman
Little is known about the sustainability of irrigated oasis agriculture in northern Oman. The objective of this study therefore was to examine which factors allowed agricultural productivity to be apparently maintained during the two millenia of a mountain oasis’ existence. Soil moisture and physico-chemical properties were measured in a typical flood-irrigated field sown to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Particle size, organic (C_org) and inorganic carbon content, pH and electrical conductivity (EC)of the soil profile ...
The nondestructive determination of plant total dry matter (TDM) in the field is greatly preferable to the harvest of entire plots in areas such as the Sahel where small differences in soil properties may cause large differences in crop growth within short distances. Existing equipment to nondestructively determine TDM is either expensive or unreliable. Therefore, two radiometers for measuring reflected red and near-infrared light were designed, mounted on a single wheeled hand cart and attached to a differential ...
Legume rotation effects on early growth and rhizosphere microbiology of sorghum in West African soils
Cereal yield increases in legume rotations on west African soils were the subject of much recent research aiming at the development of more productive cropping systems for the mainly subsistence-oriented agriculture in this region. However, little has been done to elucidate the possible contribution of soil microbiological factors to these rotation effects. Therefore a pot trial was conducted using legume rotation and continuous cereal soils each from one site in Burkina Faso and two sites in Togo where cropping ...
Field measurements of the CO2 evolution rate under different crops during an irrigation cycle in a mountain oasis of Oman
For millennia oasis agriculture has been the backbone of rural livelihood in the desertic Sultanate of Oman. However, little is known about the functioning of these oasis systems, in particular with respect to the C turnover. The objective was to determine the effects of crop, i.e. alfalfa, wheat and bare fallow on the CO2 evolution rate during an irrigation cycle in relation to changes in soil water content and soil temperature. The gravimetric soil water content decreased from initially 24% to approximately 16% ...
Emmer (Triticum dicoccon Schrank) in Oman
Emmer (Triticum dicoccon ) was collected recently in northern Oman. The material was analyzed morphologically and phenologically. It belongs to the Asiatic emmers (subsp. asiaticum) and not to the Ethiopian ones (subsp. abyssinicum), distributed in Ethiopia and Yemen, as originally expected. The determination of the material resulted in var. haussknechtianum and var. aeruginosum.
Root-induced increases in soil pH and nutrient availability to field-grown cereals and legumes on acid sandy soils of Sudano-Sahelian West Africa
A field experiment with millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.), sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) and groundnut (Arachnis hypogeae L.) was conducted on severely P-deficient acid sandy soils of Niger, Mali and Burkina Faso to measure changes in pH and nutrient availability as affected by distance from the root surface and by mineral fertiliser application. Treatments included three rates of phosphorus (P) and four levels of nitrogen (N) application. Bulk, rhizosphere and rhizoplane soils ...