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Development of a decentralized solar assisted milk pasteurizer and improved chiller for rural communities
Renewable energy is the only way to cope with changing climate for under-developed countries like Pakistan, particularly solar energy must be opted out due to plentiful sunshine hours. Being a natural liquid food, milk is a complete nutritional diet containing all of the essential minerals such as protein, fat and vitamins. However, improper post milking handling and storage resulting in wastage due to microorganisms and bacterial multiplication. The present study enables the application of decentralized solar-based ...
Sustainability of traditional cocoa agroforests in Ghana
Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is an important agricultural commodity that is important to the economies of many countries in the world. Due to cocoa’s dependence on fertile forests soils, its production is a major cause of deforestation and soil degradation in producing countries. When grown in agroforestry systems it can conserve biodiversity, sequester carbon (C), and maintain soil fertility. There are many cocoa agroforests which are managed without synthetic agrochemicals. Because organic cocoa certification is now ...
Towards crop communities: exploring wheat diversity, wheat-pea species mixtures and farming practice in a food system context
This thesis combines experimental work on heterogeneous crop populations (HP) and species mixtures (SM) with a social scientific and participatory approach. Chapter 1 introduces crop communities as a concept to integrate multiple approaches to diversify farming systems. HPs provide intraspecific and SM interspecific diversity in crop communities. A key challenge for the genetic improvement of HPs, especially for root traits is to combine effective selection to improve HPs while maintaining intraspecific diversity. ...