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In aktuellen Intelligenzstrukturmodellen gehört kristalline Intelligenz (gc) zu den am besten etablierten Fähigkeitsfaktoren. Dabei spiegelt gc die Einflüsse von Lernen und Akkulturation wider und umfasst somit alles Wissen, das Menschen im Laufe ihres Lebens erwerben und zum Problemlösen einsetzen. In diesem Beitrag beschreiben wir die Entwicklung einer Kurzskala zur Messung kristalliner Intelligenz mit fünfminütiger Bearbeitungszeit, die auf deklarativen Wissensfragen aus den Natur-, Geistes- und Sozialwissenschaften ...
Mental rotation and the motor system: Embodiment head over heels
We examined whether body parts attached to abstract stimuli automatically force embodiment in a mental rotation task. In Experiment 1, standard cube combinations reflecting a human pose were added with (1) body parts on anatomically possible locations, (2) body parts on anatomically impossible locations, (3) colored end cubes, and (4) simple end cubes. Participants (N = 30) had to decide whether two simultaneously presented stimuli, rotated in the picture plane, were identical or not. They were fastest and made less ...
Comparing apples and pears in studies on magnitude estimations
The present article is concerned with studies on magnitude estimations that strived to uncover the underlying mental representation(s) of magnitudes. We point out a number of methodological differences and shortcomings that make it difficult drawing general conclusions. To solve this problem, we propose a taxonomy by which those studies could be classified, taking into account central methodological aspects of magnitude estimation tasks. Finally, we suggest perspectives for future research on magnitude estimations, ...
Girls in detail, boys in shape: Gender differences when drawing cubes in depth
The current study tested gender differences in the developmental transition from drawing cubes in two‐ versus three dimensions (3D), and investigated the underlying spatial abilities. Six‐ to nine‐year‐old children (N = 97) drew two occluding model cubes and solved several other spatial tasks. Girls more often unfolded the various sides of the cubes into a layout, also called diagrammatic cube drawing (object design detail). In girls, the best predictor for drawing the cubes was Mental Rotation Test (MRT) accuracy. ...