Now showing items 1-10 of 10
Gold Surface Nanostructuring with Ultrashort Laser Pulses - Study of Non-equilibrium Effects
Laser material interaction and structure formation in metals under controlled ultrashort laser pulse conditions are discussed in this work. A novel approach is presented describing the exact amount of energy deposited by a laser pulse in a gold surface, applicable under a variety of structuring conditions. The presented model is validated by a new introduced broad-band pump-probe reflectivity measurement method. A technique also applicable to investigate other phenomenas where 20 fs resolution combined with an octave ...
Ab-initio analysis of the structural response of solids after femtosecond-laser-pulse excitation
After an intense femtosecond-laser excitation extreme non-equilibrium conditions are induced in materials. The high photon density in such an ultrashort-laser pulse interacts directly with the electronic system of the material. By absorbing the photon energy the electrons are excited in high energy states, where they form a non-equilibrium distribution shortly after the excitation. Due to fast electron-electron scattering and cascading processes equilibrates the electronic system within several femtoseconds to a ...
Analytical Study of Light Propagation in Highly Nonlinear Media
The present dissertation is devoted to the construction of exact and approximate analytical solutions of the problem of light propagation in highly nonlinear media. It is demonstrated that for many experimental conditions, the problem can be studied under the geometrical optics approximation with a sufficient accuracy. Based on the renormalization group symmetry analysis, exact analytical solutions of the eikonal equations with a higher order refractive index are constructed. A new analytical approach to the ...
Protein Folding Simulations: Confinement, External Fields and Sequence Design
The present Thesis looks at the problem of protein folding using Monte Carlo and Langevin simulations, three topics in protein folding have been studied: 1) the effect of confining potential barriers, 2) the effect of a static external field and 3) the design of amino acid sequences which fold in a short time and which have a stable native state (global minimum). Regarding the first topic, we studied the confinement of a small protein of 16 amino acids known as 1NJ0 (PDB code) which has a beta-sheet ...
Theory of laser-induced ultrafast structural changes in solids
The present thesis is a contribution to the study of laser-solid interaction. Despite the numerous applications resulting from the recent use of laser technology, there is still a lack of satisfactory answers to theoretical questions regarding the mechanism leading to the structural changes induced by femtosecond lasers in materials. We provide here theoretical approaches for the description of the structural response of different solids (cerium, samarium sulfide, bismuth and germanium) to femtosecond laser ...
Relativistic LCAO with Minimax Principle and New Balanced Basis Sets
Relativistic density functional theory is widely applied in molecular calculations with heavy atoms, where relativistic and correlation effects are on the same footing. Variational stability of the Dirac Hamiltonian is a very important field of research from the beginning of relativistic molecular calculations on, among efforts for accuracy, efficiency, and density functional formulation, etc. Approximations of one- or two-component methods and searching for suitable basis sets are two major means for good projection ...
Atomistic-continuum modeling of ultrafast laser-induced melting of silicon targets
In this work, we present an atomistic-continuum model for simulations of ultrafast laser-induced melting processes in semiconductors on the example of silicon. The kinetics of transient non-equilibrium phase transition mechanisms is addressed with MD method on the atomic level, whereas the laser light absorption, strong generated electron-phonon nonequilibrium, fast heat conduction, and photo-excited free carrier diffusion are accounted for with a continuum TTM-like model (called nTTM). First, we independently consider ...
Theory of Vesicle Motion and Interpretation of Electrophysiological Experiments in Chromaffin Cells, Hippocampal Neurons and Neuromuscular Junctions
Communication among secretory cells, neurons and other related cells is accompanied by a process called exocytosis, which consists in the release of neurotransmitters into the intercellular space. The neurotransmitter molecules are transported inside vesicles, which move towards the cell membrane. Once at an active site of the membrane, vesicles can undergo fusion with the membrane. As a result of fusion, a pore in the membrane is produced, through which neurotransmitter molecules leave the cell. Exocytosis is ...
Excitation of Phonons in Solids and Nanostructures by Intense Laser and XUV Pulses and by Low Energy Atomic Collision
Intensive, ultrakurze Laserpulse regen Festkörper in einen Zustand an, in dem die Elektronen hohe Temperaturen erlangen, während das Gitter kalt bleibt. Die heißen Elektronen beeinflussen das sog. Laser-angeregte interatomare Potential bzw. die Potentialenergiefläche, auf der die Ionen sich bewegen. Dieses kann neben anderen ultrakurzen Prozessen zu Änderungen der Phononfrequenzen (phonon softening oder phonon hardening) führen. Viele ultrakurze strukturelle Phänomene in Festkörpern hängen bei hohen Laseranregungen ...
Ab initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Structural Response of Solids to Ultrashort Laser and XUV Pulses
The theoretical model and underlying physics described in this thesis are about the interaction of femtosecond-laser and XUV pulses with solids. The key to understand the basics of such interaction is to study the structural response of the materials after laser interaction. Depending on the laser characteristics, laser-solid interaction can result in a wide range of structural responses such as solid-solid phase transitions, vacuum phonon squeezing, ultrafast melting, generation of coherent phonons, etc. During my ...