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Rainfall Prediction with AMSR–E Soil Moisture Products Using SM2RAIN and Nonlinear Autoregressive Networks with Exogenous Input (NARX) for Poorly Gauged Basins: Application to the Karkheh River Basin, Iran
Accurate estimates of daily rainfall are essential for understanding and modeling the physical processes involved in the interaction between the land surface and the atmosphere. In this study, daily satellite soil moisture observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer–Earth Observing System (AMSR–E) generated by implementing the standard National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) algorithm are employed for estimating rainfall, firstly, through the use of recently developed approach, SM2RAIN ...
Circular Dichroism in Fluorescence Emission Following the C 1s→π* Excitation and Resonant Auger Decay of Carbon Monoxide
Dichroism in angle-resolved spectra of circularly polarized fluorescence from freely-rotating CO molecules was studied experimentally and theoretically. For this purpose, carbon monoxide in the gas phase was exposed to circularly polarized soft X-ray synchrotron radiation. The photon energy was tuned across the C 1s→π* resonant excitation, which decayed via the participator Auger transition into the CO+ A 2Π state. The dichroic parameter β1 of the subsequent CO+ (A 2Π → X 2Σ+) visible fluorescence was measured by ...
Evaluation of Statistical-Downscaling/Bias-Correction Methods to Predict Hydrologic Responses to Climate Change in the Zarrine River Basin, Iran
Modeling the hydrologic responses to future changes of climate is important for improving adaptive water management. In the present application to the Zarrine River Basin (ZRB), with the major reach being the main inflow source of Lake Urmia (LU), firstly future daily temperatures and precipitation are predicted using two statistical downscaling methods: the classical statistical downscaling model (SDSM), augmented by a trend-preserving bias correction, and a two-step updated quantile mapping (QM) method. The general ...
Extreme Ultraviolet to Visible Dispersed Single Photon Detection for Highly Sensitive Sensing of Fundamental Processes in Diverse Samples
The detection of a single photon is the most sensitive method for sensing of photon emission. A common technique for single photon detection uses microchannel plate arrays combined with photocathodes and position sensitive anodes. Here, we report on the combination of such detectors with grating diffraction spectrometers, constituting a low-noise wavelength resolving photon spectroscopy apparatus with versatile applicability. We recapitulate the operation principle of such detectors and present the details of the ...