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Electronic origin of bond softening and hardening in femtosecond-laser-excited magnesium
Many ultrafast structural phenomena in solids at high fluences are related to the hardening or softening of particular lattice vibrations at lower fluences. In this paper we relate femtosecond-laser-induced phonon frequency changes to changes in the electronic density of states, which need to be evaluated only in the electronic ground state, following phonon displacement patterns. We illustrate this relationship for a particular lattice vibration of magnesium, for which we—surprisingly—find that there is both softening ...
Theory for the change of bond character in divalent-metal clusters
To determine the size dependence of the bonding in divalent-metal clusters we use a many-electron Hamiltonian describing the interplay between van der Waals (vdW) and covalent interactions. Using a saddle-point slave-boson method and taking into account the size-dependent screening of charge fluctuations, we obtain for Hg_n a sharp transition from vdW to covalent bonding for increasing n. We show also, by solving the model Hamiltonian exactly, that for divalent metals vdW and covalent bonding coexist already in the dimers.
Calculation of the electronic properties of neutral and ionized divalent-metal clusters
The electronic properties of neutral and ionized divalent-metal clusters have been studied using a microscopic theory, which takes into account the interplay between van der Waals (vdW) and covalent bonding in the neutral clusters, and the competition between hole delocalization and polarization energy in the ionized clusters. By calculating the ground-state energies of neutral and ionized. Hg_n clusters, we determine the size dependence of the bond character and the ionization potential I_p(n). For neutral Hg_n ...
On the localization of electrons and holes in Hg_n and rare-gas clusters
We have used a microscopic theory to study the size dependence of the degree of localization of the valence electrons and holes in neutral an ionized rare-gas and Hg_n clusters. We discuss under which circumstances localization of the electrons and holes is favoured. We have calculated the ionization potential of Xe_n, Kr_n and small Hg_n clusters. Good agreement with experiments is obtained. We have also determined the dependence of the ionization potential on cluster structure.
Slave-boson approach to the size-dependent transition from van der Waals to covalent bonding in Hg_n clusters
We use a microscopic theory to describe the dynamics of the valence electrons in divalent-metal clusters. The theory is based on a many-body model Harniltonian H which takes into account, on the same electronic level, the van der Waals and the covalent bonding. In order to study the ground-state properties of H we have developed an extended slave-boson method. We have studied the bonding character and the degree of electronic delocalization in Hg_n clusters as a function of cluster size. Results show that, for ...
Unrestricted hartree-fock calculation of the ionization potential of small Hg_n clusters
The ionization potential of small Hg_n clusters has been calculated. For the first time good agreement with experimental results has been obtained. It is shown that interatomic Coulomb interactions are important. The energy of Hg_n^+ is calculated using the unrestricted inhomogeneous Hartree-Fock approximation. As a consequence of a change in the charge distribution in Hg_n^+ , we obtain an abrupt change in the slope of the ionization potential at the critical cluster size n_cr ~ 14. The presented results are ...
Theory for the optical properties of small Hg_n clusters
The static and dynamical polarizabilities of the Hg-dimer are calculated by using a Hubbard Hamiltonian to describe the electronic structure. The Hamiltonian is diagonalized exactly within a subspace of second-quantized electronic states from which only multiply ionized atomic configurations have been excluded. With this approximation we can describe the most important electronic transitions including the effect of charge fluctuations. We analyze the polarizability as a function of the intraatomic Coulomb interaction ...