Now showing items 1-10 of 11
Unfolded Protein Response Suppression in Yeast by Loss of tRNA Modifications
Modifications in the anticodon loop of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) have been shown to ensure optimal codon translation rates and prevent protein homeostasis defects that arise in response to translational pausing. Consequently, several yeast mutants lacking important anticodon loop modifications were shown to accumulate protein aggregates. Here we analyze whether this includes the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is commonly triggered by protein aggregation within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We ...
Expression of NK cluster genes in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli: implications for the evolution of NK family genes in nephrozoans
Background: Understanding the evolution and development of morphological traits of the last common bilaterian ancestor is a major goal of the evo-devo discipline. The reconstruction of this “urbilaterian” is mainly based on comparative studies of common molecular patterning mechanisms in recent model organisms. The NK homeobox genes are key players in many of these molecular pathways, including processes regulating mesoderm, heart and neural development. Shared features seen in the expression patterns of NK genes ...
Short-spored Subulicystidium (Trechisporales, Basidiomycota): high morphological diversity and only partly clear species boundaries
Diversity of corticioid fungi (resupinate Basidiomycota), especially outside the northern temperate climatic zone, remains poorly explored. Furthermore, most of the known species are delimited by morphological concepts only and, not rarely, these concepts are too broad and need to be tested by molecular tools. For many decades, the delimitation of species in the genus Subulicystidium (Hydnodontaceae, Trechisporales) was a challenge for mycologists. The presence of numerous transitional forms as to basidiospore size ...
Importance of diphthamide modified EF2 for translational accuracy and competitive cell growth in yeast
In eukaryotes, the modification of an invariant histidine (His-699 in yeast) residue in translation elongation factor 2 (EF2) with diphthamide involves a conserved pathway encoded by the DPH1-DPH7 gene network. Diphthamide is the target for diphtheria toxin and related lethal ADP ribosylases, which collectively kill cells by inactivating the essential translocase function of EF2 during mRNA translation and protein biosynthesis. Although this notion emphasizes the pathological importance of diphthamide, precisely why ...
The Diacylglycerol Analogs OAG and DOG Differentially Affect Primary Events of Pheromone Transduction in the Hawkmoth Manduca sexta in a Zeitgebertime-Dependent Manner Apparently Targeting TRP Channels
For the hawkmoth Manduca sexta accumulating evidence suggests that pheromone transduction acts via a metabotropic signal transduction cascade, with G-protein-dependent phospholipase C (PLC) activations generating diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol trisphosphate as the primary events in hawkmoth pheromone transduction. In contrast, ionotropic olfactory receptor (OR) coreceptor (Orco)-dependent mechanisms do not appear to be involved. In hawkmoths pheromones activated a specific sequence of PLC-dependent ion channels ...
SSPIM: a beam shaping toolbox for structured selective plane illumination microscopy
Selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) represents a preferred method in dynamic tissue imaging, because it combines high spatiotemporal resolution with low phototoxicity. The OpenSPIM system was developed to provide an accessible and flexible microscope set-up for non-specialist users. Here, we report Structured SPIM (SSPIM), which offers an open-source, user-friendly and compact toolbox for beam shaping to be applied within the OpenSPIM platform. SSPIM is able to generate digital patterns for a wide range ...
Halloween genes in panarthropods and the evolution of the early moulting pathway in Ecdysozoa
Moulting is a characteristic feature of Ecdysozoa—the clade of moulting animals that includes the hyperdiverse arthropods and less speciose groups, such as onychophorans, tardigrades and nematodes. Moulting has been best analysed in arthropods, specifically in insects and crustaceans, in which a complex neuroendocrine system acts at the genomic level and initiates the transcription of genes responsible for moulting. The key moulting hormones, ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone, are subsequently synthesized from cholesterol ...
Requirement of the Dynein-Adaptor Spindly for Mitotic and Post-Mitotic Functions in Drosophila
Spindly was originally identified as a specific regulator of Dynein activity at the kinetochore. In early prometaphase, Spindly recruits the Dynein/Dynactin complex, promoting the establishment of stable kinetochore-microtubule interactions and progression into anaphase. While details of Spindly function in mitosis have been worked out in cultured human cells and in the C. elegans zygote, the function of Spindly within the context of an organism has not yet been addressed. Here, we present loss- and gain-of-function ...
Protein Phosphatase Sit4 Affects Lipid Droplet Synthesis and Soraphen A Resistance Independent of Its Role in Regulating Elongator Dependent tRNA Modification
The protein phosphatase Sit4 has been shown to be required for lipogenesis and resistance against the acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor soraphen A. Since Sit4 is also required for biosynthesis of Elongator dependent tRNA modifications such as 5-methoxycarbonylmethyluridine (mcm5U), we investigated the relevance of tRNA modifications in lipogenesis and soraphen A response. While sit4 and Elongator (elp3) mutants copy defects in mcm5U formation and stress sensitivity, they do not share soraphen A sensitivity and low ...
Collaboration of tRNA modifications and elongation factor eEF1A in decoding and nonsense suppression
Transfer RNA (tRNA) from all domains of life contains multiple modified nucleosides, the functions of which remain incompletely understood. Genetic interactions between tRNA modification genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggest that different tRNA modifications collaborate to maintain translational efficiency. Here we characterize such collaborative functions in the ochre suppressor tRNA SUP4. We quantified ochre read-through efficiency in mutants lacking either of the 7 known modifications in the extended anticodon ...