Now showing items 201-210 of 227
Etiology of Maize Root rot in Oman: Causal agents and effects of a compost based organic growing system
Summary: In Oman, the main cereal crop Maize is facing serious problems due to high salinity, alkaline soils with low organic matter, high temperatures, and root rot diseases. Production peaked at 40,000 t in 2011 but dropped to less than 15,000 t in 2014. A survey on maize root rot in eight maize growing governorates in Oman yielded nine fungal and oomycetes species of which Pythium arrhenomanes and Fusarium fujikuroi were first reports on maize in Oman. Both are able to attack multiple hosts. Under controlled ...
Studies on the diversity of the main necrotrophic pathogens on wheat and barley Pyrenophora tritici-repentis and Cochliobolus sativus
Leaf blights such as tan spot of wheat (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis) and spot blotch of barley (Cochliobolus sativus) are among the main constraints in achieving high and stable yields and are the main concerns among the several intrinsic drawbacks of narrow cropping sequencesas both are residue borne. The development of useful and durable resistance against prevalent races requires detailed information on the virulence diversity of the pathogen and the type of resistances available in the host. Thus, the focus of ...
Agrobiodiversity through evolutionary plant breeding – System specific adaptation of agronomic and morphological traits and effective populations size in composite cross populations of winter wheat
Der Schwerpunkt der vorliegenden Arbeit ist die Beschäftigung mit Züchtungsmethoden, die eine Erhöhung der Agrobiodiversität mit sich bringen, außerdem werden die Auswirkungen diversifizierter Anbausysteme betrachtet.
Effects of fertilizer type and rate on partitioning of soil organic matter into pools of different stability
Type and rate of fertilizers influence the level of soil organic carbon (Corg) and total nitrogen (Nt) markedly, but the effect on C and N partitioning into different pools is open to question. The objectives of the present work were to: (i) quantify the impact of fertilizer type and rate on labile, intermediate and passive C and N pools by using a combination of biological, chemical and mathematical methods; (ii) explain previously reported differences in the soil organic matter (SOM) levels between soils receiving ...
Effects of tillage on processes of organic matter sequestration
To increase the organic matter (OM) content in the soil is one main goal in arable soil management. The adoption of tillage systems with reduced tillage depth and/or frequency (reduced tillage) or of no-tillage was found to increase the concentration of soil OM compared to conventional tillage (CT; ploughing to 20-30 cm). However, the underlying processes are not yet clear and are discussed contradictorily. So far, few investigations were conducted on tillage systems with a shallow tillage depth (minimum tillage = ...
Effects of tillage intensity on soil C, N, and P pools with different stability
Es ist bekannt, dass die Umsatzdynamik der organischen Substanz von der Bodenbearbeitungsintensität abhängt. Bis jetzt sind nur wenige Daten zum Einfluss der Bearbeitungsintensität und des Zwischenfruchtanbaus auf C-, N-, und P-Dynamik im Ober- (0-5 cm Tiefe) und Unterboden (5-25 cm Tiefe) von Lössböden verfügbar. Hauptziele dieser Arbeit waren die (i) Quantifizierung des Einflusses von verschiedenen langzeitig durchgeführten Bearbeitungssystemen auf labile, intermediäre, und passive C- und N-Pools; (ii) Quantifizierung ...
Effects of grassland renovation on carbon concentrations and aggregate distribution in temperate grassland soils
The effects of continuous tillage on the distribution of soil organic matter (SOM) and aggregates have been well studied for arable soils. However, less is known about the effects of sporadic tillage on SOM and aggregate dynamics in grassland soils. The objectives of the present thesis were (I) to study the longer-term effects of sporadic tillage of grassland on organic carbon (Corg) stocks and the distribution of aggregates and SOM, (II) to investigate the combined effects of sporadic tillage and fertilization on ...
Effects of different tillage treatments on labile soil organic matter pools and stabilization processes
An improved understanding of soil organic carbon (Corg) dynamics in interaction with the mechanisms of soil structure formation is important in terms of sustainable agriculture and reduction of environmental costs of agricultural ecosystems. However, information on physical and chemical processes influencing formation and stabilization of water stable aggregates in association with Corg sequestration is scarce. Long term soil experiments are important in evaluating open questions about management induced effects on ...
Application of biogas slurries from energy crops to arable soils and their impact on carbon and nitrogen dynamics
The use of renewable primary products as co-substrate or single substrate for biogas production has increased consistently over the last few years. Maize silage is the preferential energy crop used for fermentation due to its high methane (CH4) yield per hectare. Equally, the by-product, namely biogas slurry (BS), is used with increasing frequency as organic fertilizer to return nutrients to the soil and to maintain or increase the organic matter stocks and soil fertility. Studies concerning the application of energy ...
Effect of environmental conditions on the N uptake route of soil microorganisms and adaption of a method to determine amino acid oxidase in soil
Soil microorganisms have evolved two possible mechanisms for their uptake of organic N: the direct route and the mobilization-immobilization-turnover (MIT) route. In the direct route, simple organic molecules are taken up via various mechanisms directly into the cell. In the MIT route, the deamination occurs outside the cell and all N is mineralized to NH4+ before assimilation. A better understanding of the mechanisms controlling the different uptake routes of soil microorganisms under different environmental conditions ...